In Egypt and Babylonia, where many cosmetics originated, eye shadow had not only a decorative purpose but was also thought to protect sensitive eyelids from the sun and insects. Minerals such as malachite would be ground into a powder like today's popular "mineral makeup" and smeared directly on the skin with rigid spatulas.
Archaeologists have found makeup containers and tools in Israel, so it was used by God's own people. But the Bible suggests that makeup was not worn by everyone as it may have been in other cultures. When makeup is mentioned in the Bible, it is associated with evil and sexually immoral women. For example, Jezebel--another biblical character whose name is synonymous with prostitution--wore makeup (2 Kings 9:30).
The association of makeup with prostitution is ancient and enduring. As recently as the twentieth century, polite Western society equated actresses, dancers, and even opera singers with loose morals. To this day I worry that I might "look cheap" when I wear heavier makeup for an evening out or in front of a camera.
The Bible never says that Mary Magdalene "painted her face" (KJV) as Jezebel did, so why did popular culture lump her in with immoral women for so long? (Yes, if you read or watched The DaVinci Code, then you already know the answer.) In the sixth century, Pope Gregory I was bothered by the fact that the "sinner" who washed Jesus' feet in Luke 7:36-50 was unnamed. So he tried to fix God's Holy Scripture by assigning her story to the next female name in the text. Since Gregory was the church's supreme authority on earth at the time, no one questioned his word. (Protestantism was still a century away.) And then the rumor grew, as they tend to do, and the sinner became an adulteress who became a prostitute.
Her artistic portrayal as a sexually immoral woman was
common by the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci skipped
the makeup in his c. 1515 topless portrait of her, but I
suppose no one is looking at her face in this particular
Mary Magdalene has endured centuries of slander simply because her story begins in Luke 8:2, a mere two verses after Jesus' highly aromatic pedicure.
Many traditional artistic depictions of Mary Magdalene imply that she was a prostitute by "painting" her face with garish makeup. Our 1980s Sunday School felt boards were among the worst offenders; the Mary Magdalene paper doll was always the prettiest one, thanks to her bright clothes, heavy jewelry, dark tan, and dreamy batting eyes. I remember a couple of golden finger cymbals on each hand too. But that Mary would have fit better seducing the shah in One Thousand and One Arabian Nights than visiting Jesus' tomb on Easter morning.
Such false traditions are incorrect and can undermine our interpretations of Scripture. They need to be recognized, debunked, and shelved with Fiction; but that is difficult to do when untruth is "common knowledge" that has been immortalized by artists and is believed by Bible teachers themselves.